One million Iraqi troops and 5,500 tanks, defeated in 100 hours

The US and coalition forces crushed the Iraqi army, which was among the top 5 in the world in terms of military power, in under 100 hours. What can Russia learn from the current confrontation with Ukraine?

The Russian-Ukrainian conflict has been going on for more than 200 days and it is “fast moving” towards the 300-day mark.
When observing the combat actions of the Russian army in the Russo-Ukraine conflict , we compare it with the performance of the Iraqi army with 1.25 million regular troops, 5,500 tanks, more than 4,000 artillery pieces and 1,000 aircraft in the Gulf War.

In 1991, the Iraqi army, ranked in the top 5 in the world in terms of military strength, was completely defeated by the US and coalition forces in just 100 hours and lost nearly 200,000 troops.

The Gulf War also entered the world’s military history, as the first “high-tech war” in human history.

In previous research papers on the Gulf War, many experts have said that the US military’s victory in the Gulf War and Iraq’s defeat were due to the US military’s weapons being too advanced. However, the truth is not simply in terms of weapons and equipment, because the Iraqi army itself, was also equipped with a lot of terrible weapons at that time.

Reasons for the defeat of the Iraqi Army in the Gulf War in 1991

First, during the Gulf War of 1991, the early US military blockade of Iraq paved the way for the defeat of the Iraqi army.

Before the outbreak of the Gulf War, the Iraqi army had suffered logistical losses.

On August 11, 1990, the US government announced the launch of a naval blockade against Iraq. The US military has sent more than 100 ships to form a maritime blockade force.

This force forms a three-way blockade network with the help of satellites, early warning aircraft and aircraft carrier formations. Check for any suspicious ships passing through Iraq.

On September 25, 1990, the US continued to pass Resolution 670 at the United Nations, imposing an air embargo on Iraq.

Since the purpose of the US attack on Iraq was to protest Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, the US blockade was supported by many countries. More than 20 countries have sent their troops to join the US in the blockade of Iraq.

The US military and the multinational coalition have sent 8 aircraft carriers and 165 warships of all kinds. The Air Force has deployed 7,500 aircraft to be ready to intercept.

Due to the blockade of the US military, Iraq’s shipping has basically stopped working, Iraq has lost 95% of its oil income; The ammunition of the Iraqi army was not enough to fight for a month.

This blockade of the US and allied forces, was the first cause of the inevitable defeat of the Iraqi army in the war.

In particular, Iraqi radar and other electronic intelligence, were successfully intercepted by US military satellites. US military satellites transmit electronic data to electronic warfare aircraft, thereby providing timely target coordinates for US weapons.

The US military’s KH12 reconnaissance satellite can detect images with a resolution of 10 cm. A US military satellite, combined with a ground monitoring system to record the phone calls of Iraqi air defense and missile units. Even the US Army is well aware of radio calls and other communications between tanks.

In addition to space reconnaissance, U-2 reconnaissance aircraft and RC-135 reconnaissance aircraft of the US military also deployed activities; Combined with the above aircraft are two E-3 early warning aircraft performing electronic reconnaissance missions.

Through continuous electronic acquisition and reconnaissance, all electronic spectrum and other data detected by the US military, will be transmitted to US Military Command, helping the stealth fighter F. -117 and Tomahawk cruise missiles of the US military, accurately and timely destroy Iraqi targets; Iraq suffered heavy losses from the first day, the first hour of the war.

Second, before the large-scale air strike on January 17, the US military conducted strong electronic jamming.

After the American early warning aircraft and refueling aircraft took off, three types of specialized electronic warfare aircraft of the US Air Force, EA-6B, EF-111A and EC-130H performed electronic warfare. within a range of 160 km, 148 km and 130 km, respectively.

The formation of long- and medium-range strategic electromagnetic jamming and tactical electromagnetic interference for the flying formations of the attack aircraft mentioned above, have made the communications and radar systems of the Iraqi army “blind”.

Within 24 hours of the outbreak of war, multinational forces deployed 2,000 electronic warfare aircraft that used active frequency radio interference and infrared jamming to jam radar and guided missiles. Infrared line of the Iraqi army.

Electronic warfare deception: American F-15 and F-16 fighter jets rapidly approach the Iraqi border area to lure Iraqi radars on, then turn around. At the same time, the RC-135 reconnaissance aircraft quickly acquired the real Iraqi radar spectrum.

The US military’s electronic warfare is systematically and rigorously conducted; from electronic reconnaissance to electronic suppression and destruction; from electronic warfare deception and disinformation operations, to ensuring that the U.S. military always has the initiative on the battlefield.

Why was control of the battlefield during the Gulf War in the hands of the US Army? The reason is that the US Army has carried out comprehensive reconnaissance of the Iraqi army from satellite reconnaissance, electronic surveillance to aircraft reconnaissance, ground intelligence … since 5 months before the war.

The US military knows very well every move of the Iraqi army. But what the US military will do, the Iraqis didn’t know at all. With such an Iraqi army, would it won against the US and the coalition?

Why is the Gulf War seen as the “turning point” between “high-tech information warfare” and “mechanized warfare”? Why are American air strikes so effective that “destructive” bombs are rarely needed?

The dominance of US air strikes is only one aspect; It is the electronic warfare systems implemented by electronic warfare aircraft and space-based satellites, as well as ground surveillance and reconnaissance vehicles, that are the key issues of war. high-tech painting.

This also boils down to the philosophy of modern warfare: If you master electromagnetic power, you will win the battlefield.

Third, the US air force, navy, army as well as the air force of multinational forces, have been effectively supported by satellites, strategic reconnaissance aircraft, early warning aircraft, and aircraft. electronic warfare flight.

F-117 stealth fighters and cruise missiles first appeared on the battlefield, having continuously carried out raids on the Iraqi army for 38 days. The airstrikes weakened Iraq’s front-line forces by 50 percent and the rear by 25 percent.

Air strikes were very important during the Gulf War, but electronic warfare aircraft, early warning aircraft, satellites and other information-based combat equipment… victory above.

Fourth, operational and strategic diversionary activities are widely and effectively conducted by the US Army.

First of all, the US has conducted a disinformation campaign by professional units, especially by broadcasting fake information signals.

The US diversionary action led Iraq to believe that US troops would land from Kuwait, after which Iraq deployed heavy troops near the border and in Kuwaiti territory. But the real direction of the American attack was from western Iraq.

Lessons for the Russian Army?

Leaving aside the US military’s pre-war preparations, the Iraqi logistical blockade and systematic electronic suppression were the core reasons why millions of Iraqi troops and 5,500 tanks were captured by the US military. beat within 38 days.

After the Gulf War of 1991, control of electromagnetic power and information power became a common goal pursued by the military powers.

However, the Russian military’s special military operation in Ukraine currently lacks modern electronic warfare operations.

If the Russian military copied the electronic warfare method of the US army in 1991, then with the existing weapons and equipment of the Russian army as it is today, the Russian army would not have to fight as hard as it is currently fighting.

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